Thursday, June 10, 2021

The Future of Faculty Hiring

Faculty hiring in computer science is a process long due for an overhaul. The pandemic certainly changed some of the dynamics moving most of the interviews online and saving a ton of money and time. Will this be the start of a fresh approach to recruiting?

A typical search in the past few years had some schools flying in 30-40 candidates, typically costing over a $1000 each and a full-time job for a staff member during the search. We'd justify the expense as small compared to the millions we'd invest in a faculty member throughout their career, but it is generally the largest discretionary expense for a CS department. It also gives advantages to rich departments over others.

During the pandemic all those interviews moved online and worked reasonably well at virtually no additional cost. Also no need to scrounge around to find faculty willing to skip family meals to have dinner with the candidates. And if a faculty had a conflict with a candidate on the interview day, they could schedule on a different day. There really is no reason to have all the meetings on the same day.

With the pandemic mostly behind us, will we go back to in-person interviews moving forward. I suspect the airport interview, where you fly out 20 or so candidates to have hour long interviews in a hotel near an airport with a search committee for an administrative position, will be the first to go completely virtual. 

Even for regular faculty interviews, there will be great pressure to reduce the number of in-person visits, perhaps to just the top candidates, or just the ones who have offers--make the "second visit" the only visit. Richer departments may find the expense worthwhile to make a bigger impression on the candidates and that will only expand the advantage of wealthier universities.

Times like this are the perfect opportunity for CS leadership to come in and give some sanity to the hiring process but I'm not holding my breath.

Sunday, June 06, 2021

When do you use et al. as opposed to listing out the authors? First names? Middle initials? Jr?

 If I was refering to the paper with bibtex entry: 


@misc{BCDDL-2018,

  author    = {Jeffrey Bosboom and

               Spencer Congero and

               Erik D. Demaine and

               Martin L. Demaine and

               Jayson Lynch},

  title     = {Losing at Checkers is Hard},

  year      = {2018},

  note      = {\newline\url{http://arxiv.org/abs/1806.05657}},

}

(The paper is here.)

I would write 

Bosboom et al.~\cite{BCDDL-2018} proved that trying to lose at checkers (perhaps you are playing a child and want to keep up their self-esteem, or a Wookie and don't want your arms to be torn off your shoulders   (see here),  or a Wookie child) is hard. 


Why did I use et al. ? Because it would be a pain to write out all of those names. 

How many names does it take to make you write et al. ? Are there exceptions? 

I have not seen any discussion of this point on the web. So here are my rules of thumb and some questions.(CORRECTION- a commenter points out that this IS discussed on the web. Even so, you can comment on my thoughts or give your thoughts or whatever you like.) 

1) If  there are 3 or more people than use et al. Exception: If the three are VERY WELL KNOWN as a triple. E.g., the double play was Tinker to Evers to Chance. Well, that would not really come up since in baseball nobody ever says the double play was Tinker et al.  More relevant examples:

Aho, Hopcroft, and Ullman

Cormen, Leiserson, and Rivest, also known as CLR

The more recent edition is

Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest, and Stein. I have heard CLRS but I don't know if people WRITE all four names. 

Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz also usually mentions all three. 

2) If there is one name do not use et al.  unless that one person has a multiple personality disorder.

3) If there are 2 people it can be tricky and perhaps unfair. If the second one has a long name then I am tempted to use et al. For example

Lewis and Papadimitriou (If I mispelled Christos's name-- well- that's  the point!- to avoid spelling errors I want to use et al. )

Lampropoulos and Paraskevopoulou (the first one is UMCP new faculty!). After typing in the first name I would not be in the mood to type in the second. 

Similar if there are lots of accents in the name making it hard to type in LaTeX (though I have macros for some people like Erdos who come up a lot) then I might use et al. 

(ADDED LATER- some of the commenters object to my `rule' of leaving out the last name if its complicated. That is not really my rule- the point of this post was to get a discussion going about the issue, which I am happy to say has happened.) 

----------

There are other issues along these lines: when to include the first name (when there is more than one person with that last name, e.g. Ryan Williams and Virginia  Vassilevska Williams), when to use middle initials (in the rare case where there is someone with the same first and last name- Michael  J. Fox added the J and uses it since there was an actor named Michael Fox.)

I will soon give a quote from a math paper that amused me, but first some context.  The problem of determining if a poly in n variables over Z has an integer solution is called E(n). By the solution to Hilbert's 10th problem we know that there exists n such that E(n) is undecidable. E(9) is undecidable, but the status of E(8) is unknown (as of May 2021) and has been since the early 1980's. 

Here is the quote (from here).

Can we replace 9 by a smaller number? It is believed so. In fact, A. Baker, Matiyasevich and J.Robinson  even conjectured that E(3) is undecidable over N.

Note that Baker and Robinson get their first initial but Matiyasevich does not.

I suspect that they use J. Robinson since there is another mathematician with last name Robinson: Rafael Robinson who was Julia's Robinson's husband (to my younger readers--- there was a time when a women who got married took her husband's last name). There is at least one other Math-Robinson: Robert W Robinson. I do not think he is closely related. 

Baker: I do not know of another mathematician named Baker. I tried Google, but the Bakers  I found were   not in the right time frame. I also kept finding hits to an anecdote about Poincare and a man whose profession was a baker (see here though its later in that blog post). However, I suspect there was another mathematician named Baker which is why the author uses the first initial.  Its possible the author did not want to confuse Alan  Baker with Theodore Baker, one of the authors of Baker-Gill-Solovay that showed there were oracles that made P = NP and others that made P NE NP.  But somehow, that just doesn't seem right to me. I suspect there is only one mathematician with last name Matijsavic. 

Thomas Alva Edison named his son Thomas Alva Edison Jr.  This was a bad idea but not for reasons of authorship, see here.


Thursday, June 03, 2021

What happened to self-driving cars?

In 2014, I wrote a blog post about a fake company Elfdrive.

With a near record-setting investment announced last week, the self-driving car service Elfdrive is the hottest, most valuable technology start-up on the planet. It is also one of the most controversial.

The company, which has been the target of protests across Europe this week, has been accused of a reckless attitude toward safety, of price-gouging its customers, of putting existing cabbies out of work and of evading regulation. And it has been called trivial. In The New Yorker last year, George Packer huffed that Elfdrive typified Silicon Valley’s newfound focus on “solving all the problems of being 20 years old, with cash on hand.”

It is impossible to say whether Elfdrive is worth the $117 billion its investors believe it to be; like any start-up, it could fail. But for all its flaws, Elfdrive is anything but trivial. It could well transform transportation the way Amazon has altered shopping — by using slick, user-friendly software and mountains of data to completely reshape an existing market, ultimately making many modes of urban transportation cheaper, more flexible and more widely accessible to people across the income spectrum.

It was a spoof on Uber but now it looks more like Tesla, expect that Tesla's market value is over half a trillion, about six times larger than General Motors.

The post was really about self-driving cars which I thought at the time would be commonplace by 2020. We are mostly there but there are issues of silent communication between drivers or between a driver and a pedestrian on who goes first that's hard to duplicate for a self-driving car. There is the paradox that if we make a car that will always stop if someone runs in front of it, then some people will run in front of it.

There is also the man-bites-dog problem. Any person killed by a self-driving car will be a major news item while the person killed by a human-driven car while you've been reading this post will never be reported.

We'll get to self-driving cars eventually, it just won't be all at once. We're already have basically self-driving cars on highways and in many other roads as well. As the technology improves and people see that it's safe at some point people will say, "So why do we even need the steering wheel anymore?"