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Monday, March 12, 2018

Wanted: An Easy Proof of a Weak Theorem in NT so that I can get another VDW--> Primes infinite proof to be really easy.

(All math in this article is here)

A while back I posted about a proof that Van Der Waerden's theorem implies the number of primes
is infinite (see the post here). That post brought up some logical issues.

More recently there is another proof that the primes are infinite that raises (for me at least) some number theory results and proofs. The proof uses the following theorem:

There are no 4-length Arithmetic Progressions consisting of squares.

This is attributed to Fermat. All of the proofs I've seen of it look difficult.

Here is a sketch of the proof of infinite number of primes from VDW and the theorem above.
Assume that {p1,...,pm} are all of the primes.  Let vi(n) be the power of pi in the factorization of n.

We define the following 2m coloring of N

COL(n) = ( v1(n) mod 2, ... vm(n) mod 2)

There exists a monochromatic 4-AP.  We leave it to the reader to show that you can use this to get a 4-AP of squares.

Using Fermats 4-AP theorem is hard!  In the write up I show how to use a stronger VDW theorem and a weaker (at least easier to prove in my opinion) result in Number Theory to get a different proof.

VDWPlus: for all k,c there exists W such that for all c-colorings of [W] there exists a,d such that

a, a+d, a+2d, ..., a+(k-1)d AND d (that's the PLUS part) are all the same color.

Now to prove primes are infinite. Assume not. p1,...,pm are all of the primes.

Let vi(n) be as above

COL(n) = (v1(n) mod 4, ..., vm(n) mod 4)

just apply this to the k=1 case so we have

a, a+d, d all the same color.  Say the color is (b1,...,bm) where bi in {0,1,2,3}

mult all three by p1^{4-b1} ... pm^{4-bm}.

now we have A, A+D, D all four powers. call them x^4, z^4, y^4 and you
contradict the n=4 case of Fermat'ls last theorem (this is the easiest case and was proven by Fermat)

TO DO: find an even easier theorem in Number Theory to use with a perhaps more advanced form of VDW theorem to get a proof that primes are infinite.

Coda: Cute that I replace one theorem by Fermat with another theorem by Fermat.

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